Welcome To Madhya Pradesh

The State of Madhya Pradesh is centrally located and is often called as the "Heart of India". The State is home to a rich cultural heritage and has practically everything; innumerable monuments, large plateau, spectacular mountain ranges, meandering rivers and miles and miles of dense forests offering a unique and exciting panorama of wildlife in sylvan surroundings.Its capital is Bhopal, and the largest city is Indore. The area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain (also known as Avanti) arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanisation in the sixth century BCE. 

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Demographics

Geography

History

Tourist Attractions

Demographics

The population of Madhya Pradesh consists of a number of ethnic groups and tribes, castes and communities, including the indigenous tribals and relatively more recent migrants from other states. The scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes constitute a significant portion of the population of the State. The main tribal groups in Madhya Pradesh are Gond, Bhil, Baiga, Korku, Bhadia (or Bhariya), Halba, Kaul, Mariya, Malto and Sahariya. Dhar, Jhabua and Mandla districts have more than 50 percent tribal population. In Khargone, Chhindwara, Seoni, Sidhi, Singrauli and Shahdol districts 30–50 percent population is of tribes. According to the 2001 census, the population of the tribals in Madhya Pradesh was 12,233,000, constituting 20.27% of the total population. There were 46 recognised Scheduled Tribes and three of them have been identified as "Special Primitive Tribal Groups" in the State. Due to the different linguistic, cultural and geographical environment, and its peculiar complications, the diverse tribal world of Madhya Pradesh has been largely cut off from the mainstream of development. Madhya Pradesh ranks very low on the Human Development Index value of 0.375 (2011), which is below the national average. According to the India State Hunger Index (2008) compiled by the International Food Policy Research Institute, the malnutrition situation in Madhya Pradesh was "extremely alarming", receiving a severity rating between Ethiopia and Chad. The state ranks is also the worst performer in India, when it comes to female foeticides.

Geography

Madhya Pradesh, with an area of 3, 08, 000 sq.km. is the second largest state in India after Rajasthan. It is a part of peninsular plateau of India lying in north central part, whose boundary can be classified in the north by the plains of Ganga-Yamuna, in the west by the Aravali, east by the Chhattisgarh plain and in the south by the Tapti valley and the plateau of Maharashtra. The topography of Madhya Pradesh is defined by the Narmada Sone Valley. It is a narrow and long valley extending through almost the whole of the state from east to west. Sone valley forms the upper part; Shahdol and Sidhi districts lie in this valley. The lower part forms the Narmada valley. It has an average elevation of 300 m above MSL and is covered with alluvial soil. Jabalpur, Mandla, Narsinghpur, Hoshangabad, Raisen, Khandwa, Khargone and Barwani districts lie in this region. The Sone valley is narrower than Narmada valley and alluvial deposit is also comparatively poor and thin, therefore Narmada valley is more important than Sone valley for agricultural activities. To the north of this valley lie the Central Highlands, to the south the Satpura-Maikal ranges and to the south-east, the eastern plateau. These three form the natural physiographic regions-into which the state is divided. The Central Highlands are spread between the Narmada-Sone valley and the Aravali ranges to the west in a triangular form. The highlands slope towards the north and drain into the Yamuna. The central highlands region in the state includes the following four uplands: The Rewa-Panna plateau is one, also known as the Vindhyan plateau, lies in the north- eastern part of the central highlands. The main rivers flowing in the area are Ken, Sonar, Barna and Tons. Rewa, Panna, Satna, Damoh and Sagar districts lie in this region.The other is Bundelkhand plateau located to the north-west of the Rewa-Panna plateau. Datia, Chhatarpur, Panna, Tikamgarh and parts of Guna and Shivpuri districts forming the northern part of the state lie in this region. The plateau is bounded in north-east by Vindhyan escarp lands or Rewa-Panna plateau. The average height of the region is 350-450 m above MSL and general slope is towards north. The main rivers flowing in the area are Betwa, Dhasan and Jamner which finally join Yamuna. Central India plateau is the third that lies to west of Bundelkhand plateau. Shivpuri, Morena and Gwalior districts exist in this region. This plateau has an average elevation of 450 m on highlands and 150-450 m above MSL in valleys. Chambal, Kali Sindh and Parvati are the main rivers flowing in this area. The fourth Malwa plateau covers almost the entire western Madhya Pradesh. The plateau is bounded in the north by Chambal and in south by the Narmada. The average elevation ranges between 300-500 m above MSL. Shajapur, Dewas, Indore, Ujjain, Dhar, Ratlam and parts of Sehore and Jhabua districts lie in this region. Bhopal is situated at the eastern edge of the Malwa plateau. Shipra, Parvati, Kali Sindh, Gambhir and Chambal rivers flow through the Malwa plateau. It also forms the water divide between the Ganga and the Narmada basin. The soil in the area is black cotton as a result of weathering of basalts.Satpura-Maikal ranges lie to the south and the eastern plateau regions to the north- east of the Narmada - Sone valley. Chhindwara, Betul, Seoni, Balaghat, Mandla and parts of Khandwa and Khargone districts lie in the Satpura-Maikal ranges. Average height of these ranges is 300 m ; but there are several high peaks; the highest peak of the state, Dhoopgarh that rises to 1360 m above msl lies in these ranges. The slope is sharp in south face and gentle on northern side. The eastern part, the Satpuras, is wider than the western part which stretches in the form of a semi-circle and is known as the Maikal ranges. The Maikal ranges include the Amarkantak plateau, which is origin of both Narmada and Sone rivers. The other rivers in the area are Johila, Macherwa, Denwa and Choti Tawa which join the Narmada. The eastern plateau region comprises Baghelkhand Plateau lying between Maikal ranges and Chhattisgarh plain area with an elevation of 1033 m above MSL.Like other parts of India, Madhya Pradesh also has three major seasons - Summer Monsoon and Winter. During summer (March-June), the temperature in the entire state ranges above 29.4°C. In general, the eastern parts of Madhya Pradesh are hotter than the western parts. The regions like Gwalior, Morena and Datia record temperature of over 42°C in the month of May. The humidity is relatively very low and the region usually experiences frequent mild dust storms. The south-west Monsoon usually breaks out in mid June and the entire state receive a major share of its rainfall between June and September. The south and south-east regions tend to experience a higher rainfall whereas the parts of north-west receive less. Mandla, Balaghat, Sidhi, Jabalpur and other extreme eastern parts receive more than 150 cm rainfall. The districts of western Madhya Pradesh receive less than 80 cm rainfall. The winter season starts from the month of November. The temperature remains low in the northern parts of the state in comparison to the southern parts. The daily maximum temperature in most of the northern part in the month of January remains between 15 and 18°C. The climate is generally dry and pleasant with a clear sky.

History

The geographical position of a country or a state goes a long way in impacting the course of historical events and also its economic development. It also influences the outlook of its citizens and their behavior. Madhya Pradesh occupying geographical the central position in the country, is veritably the heart of India.On account of its central position, all historical currents had apparently passed through this region, leaving conspicuous marks on it. The prehistoric period begins with the stone age, which the sites such as Bhimbetka, Adamgarh, Jaora, Raisen, Pachmarhi, etc. stand witness to. However the dynastic history begins with the time of Ashoka, the great Buddhist emperor whose Mauryan empire was powerful in Malwa and Avanti. King Ashoka's wife is said to be from Vidisha, a town located north of today's Bhopal. The Maurya Empire declined after death of Ashoka and central India was contested among the Shungas, Kushanas, Satvahanas and local dynasties during 3rd to 1st centuries BC. In the 1st century BC, Ujjain was the predominant commercial centre. This area became part of northern India during Gupta empire in 4th 6th centuries AD, the era known as classical age. Onslaughts of Huna brought about the collapse of Gupta Empire resulting in its disintegration into smaller states. However, a king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Hunas in 528 AD ending their expansion. Later Harsa of Thaneshwar reunited northern India till 647 AD before his death. In the medieval period Rajput, clans like Paramaras of Malwa and Chandelas of Bundelkhand dominated the region during 950-1060 AD. The paramara king Raja Bhoj, who gave the name to city of Bhopal, ruled over Indore and Dhar. Gond Kingdoms emerged in Gondwana and Mahakoshal. In the 13th century, northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Delhi Sultanate which collapsed in 14th century giving emergence to regional kingdoms like Tomars of Gwalior and Muslim Sultanate of Malwa with its capital at Mandu.
During the period of 1156-1605, most of the area of present Madhya Pradesh came under Mughal Empire while Gondwana and Mahakoshal remained under Gond control who acknowledged Mughal supremacy, but enjoyed virtual autonomy. Mughal control began to weakened after the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, as a result the Marathas began to expand and between 1720-1760 these took control over most of Madhya Pradesh. Holkars ruled much of Malwa based at Indore, Scindias at Gwalior and Bhonsales at Nagpur controlled Mahakoshal, Gondwana as well as Vidarbha in Maharashtra. At the same time, Bhopal was ruled by a Muslim dynasty who descended from Afghan General Dost Mohammed Khan. In course of time, the British expanded their dominion from their strongholds in Bengal, Bombay and Madras, they defeated the Marathas between 1775-1818 and entered into treaty relationships with their states and established paramountcy over them. Most of Madhya Pradesh, including the large states of Indore, Bhopal, Nagpur, Rewa and a number of small states came under British Empire. In 1853, the British annexed the state of Nagpur which included south- eastern Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra and most of Chhattisgarh which were combined with Saugor and Nerbudda Territories to form Central Province in 1861.The princely states of northern Madhya Pradesh were governed by the Central India Agency.Independence of India in 1947 was followed by the merger of hundreds of princely states into the Union with the formation of the Republic of India on 26th January, 1950. The boundaries were rationalised with the reorganisation of states. In 1950, Madhya Pradesh was created from former British Central Provinces and Berar, princely states of Makarai and Chhattisgarh and Nagpur as the capital. The new states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal were formed out of Central India Agency. In 1956, as a result of reorganisation of states, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh, some districts of erstwhile CP and Berar were transferred to Maharashtra and some minor adjustments were made with Rajasthan, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh. Then Bhopal became the new capital of the state. Initially, the state had 43 districts. Subsequently, two large districts were bifurcated in the year 1972, Bhopal was carved out from Sehore and Rajnandgaon from Durg; the total number being 45. In the year 1998, 16 more districts were carved out from larger districts and the number of districts became 61.In November 2000, the south-eastern portion of the state was split to form a new State of Chhattisgarh. Thus, the present Madhya Pradesh State came into existence, the 2nd largest state in the country, spread over a geographical area of about 308 lakh Ha.

Tourist Attractions

This is the beautiful description of the Pradesh in the 4th century AD classic "Meghdootam" by legendary Sanskrit poet Kalidas. Such is the beauty of Madhya Pradesh that has been attracting travellers since aeons. And the present Madhya Pradesh has not only maintained its pristine beauty as it was years ago but has also added a great deal to it for today's travellers. Its natural settings beautified by hills, forests, rivers, rich heritages, exciting wild life and cultural diversity make it a land of many splendours. Madhya Pradesh is resplendent with the hill ranges of the Vindhyas and the Satpuras and is green throughout. The landscape is made lucid by its rivers, whose names have the sound of water in them - Narmada, Tapti, Shipra, Betwa, Chambal, Sone and many others, carrying their own legends and history with them. So interlaced with meandering rivers, hills, lakes and forests, Madhya Pradesh has a varied natural setting of mesmerising beauty. Jungles are opulent here and have a unique and exciting panorama of wild life. Bandhavgarh in Rewa district has hoisted to world fame for its phenomenal and solitary asset : the white tigers.National Parks of Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Pench, Shivpuri, Panna and several others offer rare opportunities to have thrills of viewing life in them. The state has celebrated the golden jubilee of its existence in the year 2006 but it is as old as hills, witness to many civilizations. History has dotted it with distinguished marks in the shape of numerous monuments, right from rock shelters to exquisitely architectured Forts, Palaces, Temples, Stupas and innumerable other monuments. Here is a look at some magnificent places which make Madhya Pradesh glitter on the Tourist map.