Welcome To Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh is the rainbow land where the multi-hued Indian Culture has blossomed from times immemorial. Blessed with a varaity of geographical land and many cultural diversities, Uttar Pradesh, has been the area of activity of historical heroes like - Rama, Krishna, Buddha, Mahavira, Ashoka, Harsha, Akbar and Mahatma Gandhi. Rich and tranquil expanses of meadows, perennial rivers, dense forestsand fertile soil of Uttar Pradesh have contributed numerous golden chapters to the annals of Indian History. Dotted with various holy shrines and piligrim places,full of joyous festivals, it plays an important role in the politics, education, culture, industry, agriculture and tourism of India. Garlanded by the Ganga and Yamuna. The two pious rivers of Indian mythology, Uttar Pradesh is surrounded by Bihar in the East, Madhya Pradesh in the South, Rajasthan, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana in the west and Uttaranchal in the north and Nepal touch the northern borders of Uttar Pradesh, it assumes strategic importance for Indian defence. Its area of 2,36,286 sq kms. lies between latitude 24 deg to 31 deg and longitude 77 deg to 84 deg East. Area wise it is the fourth largest State of India. In sheer magnitude it is half of the area of France, three times of Portugal, four times of Ireland, seven times of Switzerland, ten times of Belgium and a little bigger than England. The British East India Company came into contact with the Awadh rulers during the reign of IIIrd Nawab of Awadh. There is no doubt that the history of Uttar Pradesh has run concurrently with the history of the country during and after the British rule, but it is also well-known that the contribution of the people of the State in National Freedom Movement had been significant.

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Demographics

geography

History

Tourist Attractions

Demographics

Uttar Pradesh has a large population and a high population growth rate. From 1991 to 2001 its population increased by over 26%. Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in India, with 199,581,477 people on 1 March 2011. The state contributes 16.16% of India's population. The population density is 828 people per square kilometre, making it one of the most densely populated states in the country. The sex ratio in 2011, at 908 women to 1000 men, was lower than the national figure of 933. The state's 2001–2011 decennial growth rate (including Uttrakhand) was 20.09%, higher than the national rate of 17.64%. Uttar Pradesh has a large number of people living below the poverty line. Estimates released by the Planning Commission for the year 2009-10 revealed that Uttar Pradesh had 59 million people below the poverty line, the most for any state in India. At the 2011 Indian census, about 80% of Uttar Pradesh's population was Hindu, while Muslims made up around 20%, being the second-largest community and the largest minority group. The remainder consisted of Sikhs, Buddhists, Christians, and Jains. The literacy rate of the state at the 2011 census was 70%, which was below the national average of 74%. The literacy rate for men is 79% and for women 59%. In 2001 the literacy rate in Uttar Pradesh stood at 56.27% overall, 67% for men and 43% for women. Hindi and Urdu are the official languages of Uttar Pradesh. People of Uttar Pradesh regard their language a very important part of their cultural identity. Hindi is spoken as the first language by 79% of the population. Whereas, Urdu is spoken by about 20% of the population(All Muslims of Uttar Pradesh). Most people in Uttar Pradesh speak a dialect of Hindustani, which in its written forms is referred to as Urdu or Hindi depending on the script employed. A large number of other dialects exist. Five distinct dialect regions have been identified. The western part of the state, Rohilkhand and the upper Doab, is home to the speakers of Khari Boli (The dialect used for standard Hindi and standard Urdu). The lower Doab, which is referred as Braj Bhumi, or the land of Braj, is home to the speakers of Braj Bhasha. Further south, the Bundelkhand region people speaks Bundelkhandi. In central Uttar Pradesh, people speak the Awadhi dialect and Bhojpuri is spoken in the east, Bhojpuri speakers have a similar culture to those living in the neighboring state of Bihar. Indian states are defined on the languages they speak, however, a large state like UP contains many linguistic and ethic groups and therefore lacks a cohesive, statewide identity.

geography

Uttar Pradesh, with a total area of 243,290 square kilometres (93,935 sq mi), is India’s fourth largest state in terms of land area. It is situated on the northern spout of India and shares an international boundary with Nepal. The Himalayas border the state on the north, but the plains that cover most of the state are distinctly different from those high mountains. The larger Gangetic Plain region is in the north; it includes the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, the Ghaghra plains, the Ganges plains and the Terai. The smaller Vindhya Range and plateau region is in the south. It is characterised by hard rock strata and a varied topography of hills, plains, valleys and plateaus. The Bhabhar tract gives place to the terai area which is covered with tall elephant grass and thick forests interspersed with marshes and swamps. The sluggish rivers of the bhabhar deepen in this area, their course running through a tangled mass of thick under growth. The terai runs parallel to the bhabhar in a thin strip. The entire alluvial plain is divide into three sub-regions. The first in the eastern tract consisting of 14 districts which are subject to periodical floods and droughts and have been classified as scarcity areas. These districts have the highest density of population which gives the lowest per capita land. The other two regions, the central and the western are comparatively better with a well-developed irrigation system. They suffer from water logging and large-scale user tracts. In addition, the area is fairly arid. The state has more than 32 large and small rivers; of them, the Ganges, Yamuna, Saraswati, Sarayu, Betwa, and Ghaghara are larger and of religious importance in Hinduism. Cultivation is intensive. The valley areas have fertile and rich soil. There is intensive cultivation on terraced hill slopes, but irrigation facilities are deficient. The Siwalik Range which forms the southern foothills of the Himalayas, slopes down into a boulder bed called 'bhadhar'. The transitional belt running along the entire length of the state is called the terai and bhabhar area. It has rich forests, cutting across it are innumerable streams which swell into raging torrents during the monsoon.

History

History of Uttar PradeshUttar Pradesh has a very enriching history to boast about. In fact history significantly defines the lifestyle of the present Uttar Pradesh. This land has been rules by many in the course of history. From the rule of Rama to the rule of British, Uttar Pradesh has seen it all. The history of Uttar Pradesh starts with the advent of Aryans hordes from Central Asian region. Its tryst with the history started as early as 2000 B.C when Aryans started settling along the Doab of Ganges and Ghagra. This settlement, which was predominantly rural in nature, was named "Madhyadesh" i.e. 'Central Country'. Various Vedic era kingdoms ruled Uttar Pradesh in turn. The most notable one was Kosala that was ruled by King Dasaratha and his successor Ram. They later became the protagonist of epic called Ramayana. Another epic, Mahabharata, also talks about kings who ruled in and around modern Uttar Pradesh and were participant in the war of succession between Kaurvas and Pandavas. The middle of 1st millennium B.C saw the advent of Lord Buddha and Buddhism. Sarnath near Varanasi has the pride of becoming the place where Lord Buddha gave his first sermon. In that period, Uttar Pradesh was ruled by Magadh dynasty. In due course it passed do Nanda dynasty and then to Mauryan who toppled Nanda. In the post-Christ era, Kannauj became the center of power. Various rulers ruled from this city but it was during the reign of Harshavardhana that the city raised to its pinnacle. The advent of Muslim rule acted as the catalyst in the history of Uttar Pradesh. The era saw the downfall and humiliation of Rajput rule in Uttar Pradesh and their influence was largely confined to the pockets surrounding the Rajputana strongholds of Rajasthan. Uttar Pradesh came under the rule of almost all the emperors that ruled during the Sultanate era. The real high came during the reign of Mughal when Emperor Akbar chose the city of Agra and Fatehpur Sikri as his capital cities. The Mogul reign saw the construction of some of the most magnificent monuments in Uttar Pradesh. The era also witnessed irreversible trends towards the development and consolidation of administrative and land holding systems. The era also saw the development of unique art, crafts and culinary traditions of Uttar Pradesh. The era saw the advent and conquest of British in Uttar Pradesh. The Mogul rule started weakening and was later confined to the Doab region. Other martial tribes ruled the rest of the areas viz. Oudh was ruled by the Shiite Nawabs, Rohilkhand by Afghans, Bundelkhand by the Marathas and Benaras by its own king, while Nepal controlled Kumaon and Gadhwal. The 'Divani' of Eastern Uttar Pradesh and Oudh later passed to British. It happened in the year 1764 when the British East India Company forces, in the historic Battle of Buxar, trounced the combined army of Nawab Suja-ud-Daula, Mir Kasim and Mogul Emperor Shah Alam. The state was also the epicenter of the Sepoy revolt of 1857. Some of the major protagonist of that mutiny namely Nana Saheb, Tantya Tope, Rani of Jhansi, Maharaja of Benaras and Begum Hazrat Mahal were the resident of Uttar Pradesh. A Sepoy named Mangal Pandey is said to have initiated this revolt in Uttar Pradesh when he opened fired on a British Sergeant in the Merrut Cantonment.

Tourist Attractions

Uttar Pradesh ranks first in domestic tourist arrivals with more than 71 million, owing to its rich and varied topography, vibrant culture, festivals, monuments, ancient places of worship, and viharas. Thousands gather at Allahabad to take part in the Magh Mela festival on the banks of the Ganges. This festival is organised on a larger scale every 12th year and is called the Kumbha Mela, where over 10 million Hindu pilgrims congregate in one of the largest gatherings of people in the world.The historically important towns of Sarnath and Kushinagar are located not far from Varanasi. Gautama Buddha gave his first sermon after his enlightenment at Sarnath and died at Kushinagar; both are important pilgrimage sites for Buddhists. Also at Sarnath are the Pillars of Ashoka and the Lion Capital of Ashoka, both important archaeological artifacts with national significance. At a distance of 80 km from Varanasi, Ghazipur is famous not only for its Ghats on the Ganges but also for the tomb of Lord Cornwallis, the 18th century Governor of East India Company ruled Bengal Presidency. The tomb is maintained by the Archeological Survey of India. The state also has a bird sanctuary in Etah district called Patna Bird Sanctuary. Lucknow, the capital of the state, has several beautiful historical monuments such as Bara Imambara and Chhota Imambara. It has also preserved the damaged complex of the Oudh-period British Resident's quarters, which are being restored. Uttar Pradesh gives access to three World Heritage Sites: the Taj Mahal, Agra Fort, and the nearby Fatehpur Sikri. Varanasi is an ancient city famous for its ghats. To promote tourism, the Directorate of Tourism was established in the 1972 with a Director General who is an I.A.S. officer. In 1974 the Uttar Pradesh State Tourism Development Corporation was established to look after the commercial tourist activities. To boost the tourism in the state from within the country and other parts of the world, the Government of Uttar Pradesh established a 'Uttar Pradesh Heritage Arc' covering the cities of Agra, Lucknow and Varanasi. To promote this newly created ensemble, the government organised an 'Uttar Pradesh Travel Mart' in 2015, hosted by the city of Lucknow which was attended by 80 delegates from 27 countries of the world.